Kannada inscriptions and artifacts

Kannada Historic marks
The Hunsgi and Baichbal Valleys in Gulbarga Dist with 200 Acheulean localities, representing one of the densest site accumulations in the Old World. The sites are associated with various types of fauna including wild cattle, horse, deer, elephant, and turtle. The spectacular site that has yielded 15,000 stone tools. The Isampur quarry has revealed the precise locations where the people manufactured stone tools, allowing us to infer how they procured and reduced the available stone. Study of the stone tools has given us insight into the decisions made by the artefact manufacturers.

palaeolithic quarry along the Malaprabha and Ghataprabha rivers in the Kaladgi Basin

Pre-Historic Arts in Kupgal Hills in Bellary. Even though the art form is later period than Indus valley, it is similar age to southeast asian art. the art work besides showing plants , Bow and arrow also show a man gripping woman by Hair. some of the dolerite boulders at the upper Kupgal rock art site appear to have been used for percussion purposes. These boulders, which were referred to as ‘musical stones’ bear multiple small groove-like impressions. these impressions emit loud musical ringing tones when struck by granite stones. The production of these deep bell- or gong-like sounds occurs only when the rounded impressions are struck, and not when other parts of the boulders are hit. Similar rounded impressions or ‘ringing rocks’ as such stones are commonly termed in other parts of the world, were subsequently found at other rock art sites in the vicinity, including the dolerite outcrop to the west of Halakundi. This shows the musical sense in the early people.

This period also saw full scale domestication of cattle in this area which shows presence of Ash mounds due to burning of cowdung collected locally called Budhibetta in Kannada.

Prehistoric site in Sanganakallu-Kupgal,Bellary confirms Kannadigas wide spread cultivation of wild mungbean(Vigna Radiata),Horse gram (macrotyloma unifolorum) and two millets(Brachiara Romosa and setaria verticillata) for the first time in India ahead of North India and confirms them as first fullscale farmers in South India.

proto-historic site at Hadonahalli in Shimoga taluk on the banks of the Tungabhadra. With Continuos occupation.Early historical pottery, including russet coated white paint,an axe and a cleaver of Acheulean types, made on the hematite quartzite, showing particularly the first and the last signs of rolling were found. The area had was a human habitation even from the Early Palaeolithic stage and was a regular dwelling site during the early or late Neolithic and Iron Age. The spread of pebbles on the surface of the site shows signs of the site being deserted after heavy floods.

2135-1755 B.C
Charcolithic site in Hallur

Settlement with Horse Bones found in Hallur. Indicating domesticated horse disproving Aryan invasion theory

1435-1230 B.C
Iron weapons Hallur in Dhaward district, Iron age in Karnataka starts prior to 1000BC.

1.Hand axe at Lingasugur in Raichur district.
2.Neolithic settlements with Circular huts and small cemetry Tekkalakota Bellary dist

Burial grounds found in Koramangala and Chikkajala; pre-historic sites near Anekal and Tabaranahalli in Bangalore

500 to 400 BC
Euripedes and Aristophanes use Kannada words and phrases in their dramas and skits.

Chandragupta Maurya surrenders his Empire and Comes to Sravanabelagola in Hassan Dist with 15000 followers. Place is called chandragupta Basdi.

Maski inscription shows both Ashoka and Priyadarshin, which confirmed that ashoka is priyadarshin

Emperor Ashoka's Brahmagiri,Siddapura,Jatinga-Ramesvara edicts which has kannada words.

Charition mime, a Greek drama discovered at Oxyrhynchus contains scenes where Indian characters in the skit speak dialogue in Kannada

Buddhist site at Tunnur in Chitapur taluk of Gulbarga district, Mandoka Jataka story, Dharmachakra, a piece of stupa fence, and two types of memorial stones. A Inscription in Brahmi script and Prakrit language. One of them reads: "Valavasa Papalana Kanhasa." Kanhasa means Krishna.

coins of Roman emperors Augustus, Tyberius and Claudius found in Yeshwantpur and HAL areas in Bangalore

Ptolemy Map shows places and ports in Karnataka

Two inscriptions from the Sinhalese monastery in Nāgārjunikonda, refer to the teachers of the ‘Theriyas, Vibhajjavādas, Mahāvihāravāsins’, who have brought faith to various lands refers to Banwasi.

300 - 400 AD
Nishadi (Sallekhana Samadhi or Nishadi stone memorials erected for the departed revered Jains) inscription at Chandragiri hill of Shravanabelagola. It contains Prakrit, Sanskrit and Purvada Halegannada words. The four-lined inscription has six words. The inscription is in Shatavahana Brahmi and Aadi Ganga script. This is also claimed by Epigraphist M.G. Manjunath to be oldest full length kannada inscription

Sanskrit-Kannada bilinguial copper plate inscription (tamarashaasana) is the Tumbula inscriptions of Western Ganga Dynasty

450 AD
First example of full length Kannada language stone inscription (shilashaasana) in Hale Kannada (Old-Kannada) script can be found in the Halmidi inscription. This inscription is completely in kannada(No prakrit or Sanskrit words)

500 AD
discovery of copper coin Banavasi, Uttara Kannada district with the inscription Srimanaragi in Kannada script of Kadamabas

Badami cliff shilashaasana of Pulakesi I Sanskrit inscription in Hale Kannada script.

Kappe Arabhatta inscription, found on a rock edict in Badami written in archaic Kannada script.

“Good to the good, sweet to the sweet,
This exceptional man of Kaliyuga
Is a veritable Madhava himself “

Kannada tamarashaasana in Old Kannada script belongs to Alupas ruled by Aluvarasa II from Belmannu, South Kanara district and has the double crest fish, their royal emblem.

Ancient manuscripts The oldest well-preserved palm leaf manuscript is in old Kannada and is that of Dhavala, preserved in the Jain Bhandar, Mudbidri, Dakshina Kannada district. The manuscript contains 1478 leaves written in ink.

964 AD
The inscription at Jura in Jabalpur, reign of Rashtrakuta Krishna III, classical Kannada literary composition, with charming poetic diction in polished Kannada metre.

Hakka and Bukka Build Hampi

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