Legendary Kannada Queens in History

Kittur Rani Chennamma(1778 - 1829)
Chennamma(1778 - 1829) was born in a Kakati,almost 56 years earlier than Rani Laxmi Bai, in a small village north of Belgaum in Karnataka. She was married to Raja Mallasurja. With this marriage she had only one son who died in 1824. She adopted Shivalingappa and made him heir to the throne. The British East India Company did not accept this and ordered expulsion of Shivalingappa with the help of their policy Doctrine of lapse.The Rani defied the order. A great battle ensued. The Rani fought the British with great courage and skill. She could not, however, hold out for long. She was taken captive and lodged in Bailhongal Fort where she died on 21-02-1829.

Chennamma was the first lady who fought against british for their unwanted interference and tax collection(Kappa).Chennamma was a legendary queen who fought the British army from her base in the small kingdom of Kittur in the Belgaum district of Karnataka State, India. She was ably aided in her struggle by her Lieutenant Sangolli Rayanna.

Rani Abbakka
"Abbakka rode the horse stately and worked deep into the night dispensing justice. She is the last known person to have Agnivana (fire arrow)."
Rani Abbakka, though a Queen of a little known small princely state, Ullal, was magnetic woman of indomitable courage and patriotism. While Rani Jhansi has become a symbol of courage, Abbakka, nearly 300 years her predecessor, has been largely forgotten by history. Her furious wars with Portuguese are not well recorded. But whatever is available speaks of a luminous personality of awesome valour and bravery.

Sources, such as archival records, travelogues of several Portuguese travelers and historical analysis confirm that there were three Abbakkas: mother and two daughters, who fought against the Portuguese Army between 1530 and 1599.

Though it is the second daughter who was the most courageous, the folklore treats all three Abbakkas as one great Queen and a brilliant personality Abbakka Mahadevi or Rani Abbakka. In this article also she is being treated as a single character - Abbakka Rani.

Ullal fort, the capital of Abbakka's kingdom, is located just a few kilometers away from the city of Mangalore, on the shores of the Arabian Sea. It is a historical as well as a pilgrim spot because of the beautiful Shiva Temple built by the Queen and a unique natural rock, called the Rudra Rock. The rock appears to change colours every second, as the sweater splashes on it.

According to local legends. Abbakka was an extraordinary child and as she grew up showed signs of being a visionary. there was no equal to her in military science and warfare, mainly in archery and sword fighting. Her father encouraged her in this and after she was well versed in all areas, she was married to a neighbouring local king of Bangher. The marriage did no last long with Abbakka breaking the ties by returning the jewels given by his to her. The husband thus nurtured revenge against Abbakka and later on joined the Portuguese in a treaty, to fight Abbakka.

The Portuguese had made several attempts to capture Ullal, strategically placed. But Abbakka had repulsed each of their attack with sheer courage and ingenuity. The queen's story is retold from generation to generation through folk songs and yakshagana, the popular folk theatre, In bootaradhana, (which literally means appeasing the possessed, a local ritual dance) the personal in trance narrates the great deeds of Abbakka Mahadevi. Abbakka, dark and good looking, always dressed in simple clothes like a common village woman. She rode the horse stately and worked deep into the night dispensing justice.

According to the folklore, Abbakka is the last known person to have the Agnivana (fire-arrow) in her fight against the Portuguese. Though Abbakka was a Jain by faith her administration was well represented by Hindus and Muslims. Her army too consisted of people from all sects and caste including Moggaveeras, a fisher folk community. The first attack by the Portuguese in south Kanara coast was in 1525, when they destroyed the Mangalore port. Rani Abbakka was alerted by the incident and started preparing herself to protect her kingdom. In 1555, the Portuguese sent Admiral Don Alvaro da Silvereira against the Queen of Ullal Abbakka Devi Chowta who had refused to pay them the tribute. She fought with courage and intelligence and pushed them back.

In 1558 the Portuguese Army perpetrated another wanton cruelty on Mangalore, putting to death a number of men and women, both young and old, plundering a temple, burning ships and finally setting the city itself on fire.
Again, in 1567, the Portuguese army attacked Ullal, showering death and destruction. The great Queen Abbakka Devi Chowta (Bucadevi I) resisted it.

The same year one general Joao Peixoto was sent by the Portuguese Viceroy Antony Norohna with a fleet of soldiers. He captured the city of Ullal and also entered the royal court. However the Queen escaped and took asylum in a mosque. The same night, she counter-attacked the Portuguese army, with a help of 200 of her soldiers and killed General Peixoto and 70 Portuguese soldiers.

The invaders were forced to flee to their ships in disgrace. The Portuguese soldiers who remained in Ullal were dead drunk, in over confidence and were dancing. Taking advantage of this opportunity, about 500 Muslim supporters of Abbakka Rani attacked the Portuguese and killed Admiral Mascarenhas along with the help six thousand Muslim soldiers in 1568, and the foreign army had to leave the Mangalore fort.

In 1569, the Portuguese Army not only regained the Mangalore Fort but also captured Kundapur (Basrur). Abbakka Rani was a source of threat to the Portuguese. They won the confidence of Abbakka's estranged husband, kind of Bangher and started attacking Ulla. Abbakka Rani fought vigorously.

She formed an alliance in 1570 with Bijapur Sultan Ahmed Nagar and the Zanmorine of Calicut, who where also opposing the Portuguese. Kutty Pokar Markar, a general of the Zamorine fought on behalf of Abbakka and destroyed the Portuguese fort at Mangalore but while returning he was killed by the Portuguese.

Abbakka lost the war as her husband assisted the Portuguese by revealing to them her strategies of warfare, which he was familiar with. She was arrested and jailed. However, the warrior that she was, she was, she revolted in the prison and died as a soldier - fighting.
Though Abbakka has been admired and worshipped in the local folk forms, it is very recently there there have been efforts to honour her memory.

Onake Obavva (18th Century)
Onake Obavva was a woman who fought the forces of Hyder Ali single handedly with a masse (Onake) in the small kingdom of Chitradurga in the Chitradurga district of Karnataka State, India. She was the wife of a guard of the watch tower in the rocky fort of Chitradurga.
During the reign of Madakari Nayaka, the city of Chitradurga was besieged by the troops of Hyder Ali. A chance sighting of a woman entering the Chitradurga fort through a crack hole in the rocks led to a clever plan by Hyder Ali to send his soldiers through the crack hole. The defence guard on duty of the port near that crack hole had just gone home as usual asking his wife to guard till he is back from his lunch. The wife of that guard, Obavva while in her temporary seat, noticed the soldiers emerging out of this crack, Obavva was not perturbed. As she was carrying with her, the Onake (a wooden long club meant for pounding paddy grains) she killed and quietly moved the dead, so that hundreds of them entered and fell, without raising any suspicion. The guard, Obavva's husband, upon his return from his lunch was shocked to see Obavva standing with a blood stained Onake and hundreds of dead bodies of the enemy fleet around her. Though her sincere brave attempt saved the fort this time, Madakari could not resist the attack of 1779 by Hyder Ali. The fort of Chitradurga was lost to Hyder Ali once for all.

Keladi Chennamma
Keladi Chennamma (17th century) was a queen of Keladi Nayaka dynasty who fought the Mughal Army of Aurangzeb from her base in the kingdom of Keladi in the Shimoga district of Karnataka State, India. She gave shelter to the son of Shivaji Maharaj infuriating the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. In the battle that ensued she successfully defended her territory from the siege. Her rule lasted for 25 years and Keladi kingdom was probably the last to lose autonomy to Mysore rulers and subsequently to British.

Aurangzeb had conquered many kingdoms in North India and had turned his eyes towards the South. His thirst for expansion was not yet quenched and his vast, powerful army attacked this small state. The excuse had been that the Queen had given shelter to the son of Maharaja Shivaji.

But Chennamma was not afraid. Nor did she feel sorry. She did not ask for pardon. She faced the attack like a heroic woman. When the enemies themselves withdrew their attack and begged for a treaty, she was quite generous.

She had the complexion of a pearl, with bright eyes and a broad forehead. A long nose and curly hair adorned a face of royal dignity. The beautiful Queen was full of good qualities too. And she had the ability to kill her enemies in the battles, like Durga (the goddess of power). Beauty, valour, piety and generosity all blended in this great Queen.

Other woman who have given insurmountable service to Kannada art, literature, religion, culture and political administration.

Belawadi Mallamma
Belawadi Mallamma known as the brave warrior queen of Belawadi, was from Bailhongal, Belgaum District, North Karnataka, Karnataka, India. Belvadi Mallamma was the first woman who formed a women's army to fight against the British and the Marathas in 17th century.

She was the daughter of Sode king Madhulinga Nayaka. Belawadi Mallamma fought with the Maratha king Shivaji Maharaj while defending her husband's kingdom. Her kingdom was very secure and undefeatable. In the battle Shivaji Maharaj's soldier cut the leg of horse on which she was riding and she fell. When she rose and began fighting Shivaji's troops rushed and arrested her. They took her to Shivaji. He praised her and said "I made a mistake Ma..! Kindly forgive me..,I don't want your kingdom", then released her.

She fought enemy troops on horseback, wearing a saree in veeragacche (soldier's tuck - a tight tucking of the front pleats in the back).

Scholar Shesho Srinivas Muthalik recorded the life in the palace of Madhulinga Nayaka in 1704-5 A.D. in the Marathi language.

Queen Naikidevi 
1178-? Regent Queen Naikidevi of Chalukyas. When Mohammed Ghori attacked the Chalukyas, the king was only an infant. his mother Naikidevi became the regent and led her troops to war and defeated Ghori.

Urodati Vennele Settikavve
Around 1200 Urodati Vennele Settikavve of Satenahalli. She was also security officer, and stopped loot and rampage in her territory in Karnataka by punishing the ruffians and supporting the ethos of traders. She also arranged seminars on religion (dharma-prasanga).

Rani Chand Bibi

1580-90 Rani Chand Bibi of Bijappur, also known as Chand Khatun or Chand Sultana, was an woman warrior. She acted as the Regent of Bijapur (1580–90) and Regent of Ahmednagar (1596–99). Chand Bibi is best known for defending Ahmednagar against the Mughal forces of Emperor Akbar.

Queen Jakaladevi
Around 1076-1126 Queen Jakaladevi.  She was a fervent devotee of Jina, but her husband, Vikramaditya VI, was determined to bring her to the Hindu fold, but gave up his attempt when he was carried away by the beauty of an icon of Mahu-Manikya (Jina) brought by a trader, and asked the queen to install it in her home town, so that her subjects could derive inspiration from her religion. Her kingdom was placed in Ingalgi in the Bijapur District of Karnataka

Queens of the Jam Chiefs
Until 1608 Queen of the Jam Chiefs.  Her family, the Jam Chiefs of Gersoppa, was established in power in 1409 by the Vijayanagar kings, but subsequently became practically independent and established its capital in Nagarbastikere. The chieftaincy was several times held by women, and on the death of the last Queen it collapsed, having been attacked by the chief of Bednur. Among the Portuguese the North Kanara district of Bombay was celebrated for its pepper, and they called its Queen Regina da pimenta (Queen of pepper). 

Queen Naganika, wife of king Satakarni of Satavahana dynasty, is perhaps the earliest person in history of India whose name has been associated with the king on the coins. The inscription at Nanaghat in western India records the donation made by the Satavahanaking Sri Satakarni and his queen Naganika at the celebration of different sacrifices (30B.C.). The donations were in coins (Karsapanas). The Satavahanas had trade relationwith the Roman Empire. The Roman empire supplied the base metals for the native currency. The periplus mentions the importation of silver. One inscription from Junnar records the guild of barriers. This is the unique evidence from Junnar. It was likely that king Satakarni melted down the Roman silver coins at Junnar and coined his Karsapanas. Silver coins of Satakarni-I and Naganika from Junnar have proved that they were issued on the occasion of Asvamedha sacrifice.

The Satavahana kings generally used the name of their mothers as their initials. Kochiputra Satakarni, Kosikiputra Satakarni, Gotamiputra Satakarni, Vasisthiputra Satakarni, pulimei. These are some of the names of Satavahana kings that we find both in inscriptions and coins. ‘Kochi’, Kosiki, ‘Gotami’, ‘Vasisthi’ these king mothers were certainly the crowned queens of the dynasty. This evidence provides sufficient strength to the fact that the queens played pivotal role in the administration of the state.

Princess Vijaya Bhattarika(Chalukya)
655AD Governor Princess Vijaya Bhattarika of a Province ,She was governor under King Vikramaditya I of Chalukya (655-681).

Maharani Mayamalla Devi
1093-? Regent Dowager Maharani Mayamalla Devi. After the death of her husband, Karna, she was regent for son, Siddaha Raja Jayasimmha (1094-1143).

Rani Devammaji
1809-11 Rani Regnant Devammaji  of Kodagu. She was deposed.

 Maharani Sri Lakshmi Ammani Devi Avaru (Wodeyar)
1799-1810 H.H. Soubhagyavati Maharani Sri Lakshmi Ammani Devi Avaru Regent for her adopted grandson, 25th June 1799 - February 1810, eldest daughter of Sardar Kathi Gopalraj Urs, of the Bettadakotte family. She lived (1742-1810)


1868-81 Regent .Soubhagyavati Maharani Sri.  Regent for adopted son, H.H. Maharaja Sri Sir Chamarajendra Wodeyar X Bahadur, Maharaja of Mysore (1863-94).

Maharani sri Nanja Ammani 
1894-1902 H.H. Soubhagyavati Maharani Sri Vani Vilasa Sannidhana Kempa Nanja Ammani Avaru
She was regent for her son H.H. Maharaja Sri Sir Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV Bahadur, Maharaja of Mysore. She lived (1866-1934)

Queen Jogabbarasi
1019 Administrator Queen Jogabbarasi of the Village of Ajjadi , karnataka

Queen Lakshmadevi
1019 Administrator Queen Lakshmadevi of Dronapura , Karnataka.

Loka Mahadevi
Loka-Mahadevi, the principal queen of the Chalukya Emperor Vikramaditya II of Badami, built the temple of Lokeshwara (Virupaksha Temple), at Pattadakal in Bijapur. In recognition of the skill displayed in its construction, she exempted thee entire class of builders of that district from payment of taxes. Ananda K Coomaraswamy calls this temple "One of the noblest structures of India". She also conferred on the muscians and dancers (Gandharvas) a number of priveleges. On of these, by name Achala seems to have founded a new school of Dancing.

Kunkuma Mahadevi
In the Kannada Country, the home of the chalukyan style of Architecture, among the early temple-builders and Philanthrophists, mention may be made of to Kunkuma Mahadevi, the younger sister of the Chalukya Vijayaditya (696-733AD). She constructed a large jaina temple (Jina-Bhuvana) at Purigere (Modern Lakshmeshwar, Dharward), which became famous. Being patron of learned Brahmins, she instructed her brother to donate a villlage a Brahmana. She also performed the ceremony of Hiranya-garba, which involved in her case such costly presents as elephants and chariots. From one of the inscriptions we learn that she was the wife of the brave and generous Alupa King ChitraVahana, who ruled over Banavasi and extended the Chalukya Power.

In the list of Famous heroines and administrators the name of Akkadevi (1010-1064AD) stands very high. She was ruler of Chalukya domains of Banavasi, Kisukadu and Masavadi for nearly half a century. This great administrator was the daughter of Darshavarman and Bhagaladevi and was the sister of Vikramaditya V and Jaysimha II, both Chalukya Emperors of Kalyana. She is described in the inscriptions as fierce in battle and as having subjugagted large number of enemies. She laid siege of Gokage, to quell some local Insurrection. She was described as marvel of virtuous qualities and as answering in her promises. The seat of her government was Vikramapura (Arashibidi, Bijapur). She was married to Kadamba Chieftain Mayura Varman, who ruled Banavasi in 1037AD. They had a sond called Toyimadeva, who ruled the Banavasi region as feudatory of the Chalukyan emperor Someshwara I in 1064AD. her name is associated with the foundation of a number of temples. She also evinced interest in promoting education among elites. An Inscription of 1021AD say that she made a gift of large plots of land to feed and clothe five hundred students and provide them with free quarters. THe fact that she reigned not only in conjugation with her husband, but also independently is an indication that shwe was a personage of considerable reputation and importance in her time and no less than three successive Chalukyan emperors had confidence in her administrative ablily. In fact the royal women of the kannada country had distinguished themselves in intellectual as well a other pursuits from early times.

Shila Mahadevi
One of the most renowned queens who had joint authority with the king to rule over a big territory was an able princess of the Rashtrakuta dynasty, This was Shila Mahadevi, wife of the Rastrakuta king Dhruva. History tells us that Rastrakutas were very powerful and their empire was large. It extended Himalayas in north and Kanyakumari in south one time. The extension to north was due to Dhruva. He also defeated Pallavas and Ganga in south. The very fact that such a powerful ruler should hold authority conjointly with his queen is an indication of Shilla mahadevi high place in the administarion of the country. She was a the daughter of another mighty monarch called Vittarasa (Vishnu vardhana IV fof Eastern Chalukya) who had titles Sarvalokashraya. Epigraphical evidence indicated she was very generous with Brahmans. She was also empowered to give very large gifts without consent of her husband. Two brahmans to whom she made the gift of a village are mentioned as great religious students , one of them being well versed in the four vedas.

The order containing the great is addressed to provincial governors and a succession to other officers. The concluding part of the record reveals that the document was made according to the orders not of the king Dhruva ,but shila Mahadevi, who is described as Parameshwari and Parama-bhattarika, which indicates her paramountancy. All this shows that she must have exercised considerable authority over the the whole of the Rastrakuta Dominions.

A famous Sanskrit poetess names Shila-bhattarika has been mentioned by Rajashekhara (9th century AD) as a peer of Bana in Panchali style. Dhanadadeva also speaks of her as renowned poetess and places her in the same calss as Vijjaka. The Suffix bhattarika perhaps indicates that she was a royal descent, in which case she may be possibly identified with queen Shila Mahadevi

Queen Shantala
Under the influence of Ramanuja, Hoysala King Bittiga changed his Jaina faith for Vaishnavism and assumed the name Vishnvardhana. His queen Shantala, however remained Jaina. Her father was a Shaiva and her mother a Jaina. A lovely womann of remarkable intelligence and strong will, she was an expert in music, dancing and other fine arts. In 1123AD. She built  a temple with tank and garden for Shanti jina at Shravana Belgola, the holiest place of Jains in south and endowed a village to meet the cost of daily worship and feeding of ascetics. Her faith did not stand in the way of her clsoe association with her husband in his charities. Vishnuvardhana temples in Belur are among the finest specimens of Hoysala art and iamge of keshava and her set setup is a master piece. Equally remarkable is another image of Vishnu that Shantala got consecrated. Shanti grama, a village which the king gave her, she set apart for learned Brahmins. She died in 1131AD at Shivaganga, and her sorrowing mother performed Sallekhana (Suicide by Starving) at Shravana Belgola.

 Queen Mailaladevi
Around 1042-around 1068 Governor Queen Mailaladevi, the Province of Banavasi .  Mailaladevi, a senior queen of Somesvara I of Karnataka, she ruled the important province of Banavasi, comprising twelve thousand villages.

Queen Ketala
Around 1042-ca. 68 Governor Queen Ketala, the Province of Pomnavad. She was another wife of King Somesvara I of Karnataka.

 Queen Ketaladevi
1076-? Administrator Queen Ketaladevi of Shiraguppe, Kolanoor and other cities Married to king Vikramaditya VI of Karnataka.

 Queen Lakshmi
1076-? Administrator Queen Lakshmi of Dronapura.  Also married to king Vikramaditya VI of Karnataka.

Queen Piriyaketaladevi
1076-? Administrator Queen Piriyaketaladevi. Another wife of king Vikramaditya VI of Karnataka, she ruled three villages.

Queen Srimadevi 
From 1076 Governor Queen Srimadevi of Samkarige. Another wife of king Vikramaditya VI of Karnataka, she ruled three villages.

Queen Pamdambika
From 1076 Governor Queen Pamdambika of Tadikonda. Another wife of king Vikramaditya VI of Karnataka, she ruled three villages.

Queen Mailala Mahadevi
1094 Administrator Queen Mailala Mahadevi of the Town of Kannavalli. She was the wife of king Vikramaditya VI of Karnataka, and built a temple for the god Malleshwara. An inscription in Durga temple, Dharwad belongs to the period of Vikramaditya VI of Chalukya dynasty, and it mentions the date 1117 A. D. The consort of this ruler, Mylaladevi, was a distinguished scholar, a very incarnation of Goddess Saraswati. She had the reputation of being a popular queen. Dharwad was part of Kundur Five Hundred district. At that time it was under the administrative control of Peragade Bhanudeva.

Around 1100 Administrator Revakabbarasi of Posavuru. She ruled during the period of Medieval Karnataka, and was married to general Vavanarasa.

Mahadevi of Maruvolal
Around 1000 Administrator Mahadevi of Maruvolal. She was in charge of Marol in the Bijapur District of Karnataka. She was the daughter of Irivabedanga Satyasraya (Emperor in 997-1008).

Around 1100 Responsible Officer Revakabbarasi of the Royal Household of Karnataka.Her title was Pasayite

Around 1100 Chief Administrator Jakkiabb of a Nagarakhanda Division. In Karnataka the administration of larger units, e.g., nadu (a division comprising several villages), other than villages and towns was also assigned to women, if they were found competent. Sattarasa Nagarjuna was the chief administrator of a division (nalgavunda). He headed Nagarakhanda, consisting of seventy villages and was responsible for revenue, irrigation and the general administration of this division. When he died prematurely, the king found in his widow, Jakkiabbe, an able administrator and appointed her in his place. She supervised the work of several headmen (perggade) under her and put through several deals, recovered dues and distributed grants. While dedicating herself to administration, her health failed. She was succeeded by daughter.

Queen Lalieya devi
Around 1100 Administrator Queen Laliteya Devi of Mottiwada.She was in charge of the Belgaum District of Karnataka

11.... Chieftainess Nagasanamma in Karnataka .She was widow of a feudal chief and inherited the chieftainship. she is described as Mahasamantha showing that she ruled as a feudal lord in her own right.

1148 Village Headman Lakkadevi . Her title was mahaprabhuvini

Queen Bhagubai
Ca. 1199-ca. 1247 Governor Queen Bhagubai of three Large Regions. She was the in charge of three large regions in Karnataka, including modern Bijapur district and earned admiration of her king and overlord Singhana II.

Until 1275 Co-Ruler of Ballamahadevi, the Barahkanyapura Province 1275-92 Regent. The province was situated in Barkur in the South Kanara District of Karnataka. She assisted her husband, Vira Pandyadeva, in administering his province from Barahkanyapura. After his sudden death she was regent for their minor son, Nagadevarasa. She is mentioned as mistress of the Western Sea.

Queen Chikai Tai 
1335-1348 Administrator Queen Chikai Tai of Tulunad. She ruled the region on behalf of her husband, the Hoysala king Vira Ballala III, and seems to have continued her role even after her husband's death.

Queen Umadevi
Around 1200 Army Commander Queen Umadevi. She led two campaigns against recalcitrant vassals during the reign of her husband, king Viraballala II of Hoysala (1173-1220).

Queen Vijabhattarike
After 681 Politically Influential Queen Vijaybhattarike.  A well-known poet, she is mentioned as reigning for a time in the absence of her husband King Chandraditya who was the brother of Vikramaditya I (655-681).

General Takkadevi(535AD)
According to the ancient sources she won a number of battles, and thereby earned the sobriquet 'rana-bhairavi' or battle-goddess.

Not Royal but no Less

Danachintamani Attimade
In the Last quarter of the tenth century AD, when the Chalukyan Emperor Taila II was ruling, there lived a lady who was destined to become famous as Danachintamini Attimade. She was born in a family of learned men. Her father Mallapayya , a general, was a great scholar, a reputed astrologer, an excellant teacher of archery and a patron of learning. She and her sister Gundambbe were married to Nagadeva, Commander in chief of the Chalukyan Army and son of Dhallapa, the Prime Minister. In one of his masters campaign Nagadeva was killed and his second wife performed Sati. Attimabbe was persuded not follow her sisters example, because her sond Annigadeva was still very young. She was a dvout follower of Jainism and was responsible for its spread during that period of decline. For this purpose she got prepared a thousand manuscript copies of the Shantinatha Purana, a jaina Religious work written by a court poet called Ranna. Her generous help enabled the poet to write an important book on Jainism entitled Ajita purana. She was kept in hight esteem by the citizens of Chalukyan Empire and even by Emperor Taila himself. A number of miracles were attributed to her. That her title of Danachintamani (Unstinting Donor) was well merited, is devident from the fact that she gave awary thousand and five hundred golden images of Jina set with Precious stones. From two inscriptions of 1007AD found at Lakkundi (Near Gadag), we learn that she was responsible for the construction of a number of jaina Basts (Temples), for maintenance of one which she gave away a village named Suruki.

Kadamba Devi Queen of Pulikesin and Princess Alupa dynasty
Nijagallina Rani(daughter of king Vikramaditya)
Natyarani Shanthala
poetess Kanti
Danachintamani Attimabbe
Helavanakatte Giriyamma
Sanchi Honnamma
Kumara Mallamma
Gamaki Tirumalamba
Kodagina Gowaramma
Jayadevathayi Ligade
and many others have enriched Karnataka's heritage.

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